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Was the Holy Prophet Martyred or Did He Die a Natural Death?

The first four meanings do not apply to this Ayah, but the fifth that is ambiguity is possible in this Ayah. Meaning that God knows that the Prophet is to be martyred, but He puts it in ambiguity.

The Martyrdom of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Strong evidence to prove the martyrdom of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

In this study, we prove one of the most important historical events of Islam, i.e. the martyrdom of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and we are trying to use the Qur’an and the valid books of both sects (Sunni and Shia)as references.

First,we express the opinion of Sunni Muslims about the martyrdom of the Prophet and his poisoning bya Jewish woman ;and then will talk about Shia opinion in this regard.

Chapter One: proof of martyrdom of the Prophet (PBUH) in Qur’an

“And Muhammad is only a messenger from the Lord that other messengers before him have passed away. So if he dies or is killed you return to your past (the age of ignorance? And anyone returning to its past, does not hurt to Allah, and Allah will reward the thankful soon. “(Al-Imran (2), ayah 144)

This is one of the most important ayahs mentioning the martyrdom of the prophet according to the books of interpretation of Qur’an and Hadiths.

Status of revelation of this Ayah was when the defeat of Muslims in the battle of Uhud. In the battle of Uhud the pagans (polytheists) rumored that the Prophet was killedand this rumor caused a kind of defeat, retreat and hesitation in Muslims with fragilebeliefs and God reveled this Ayah to blame them.

There are mentioned three meanings for the conjunction “or” in the Arabic syntax science: 1. Non-Nasebeh reference, 2. Nasebeh reference, 3, Ezrab.

The first type has several meanings including: 1. discretionary, 2. permissible, 3.doubt, 4. Split, 5. ambiguity.

The first four meanings do not apply to this Ayah, but the fifth that is ambiguity is possible in this Ayah. Meaning that God knows that the Prophet is to be martyred, but He puts it in ambiguity.

The reason for this ambiguity might be that if God had explicitly expressed that the Prophet is to be martyred, the pagans and Hypocrites would acceleratetheir action relying on the truth of God’s word and would plan and proceed sooner for their purpose.

The second type also has circumstances that are not existent in this Ayah.

Considering the third type Ezrab which means “nay but”, in this case the meaning of the Ayah will be: “So if he dies, nay but is killed.” This possibility also seems correctespecially that “or” meaning “nay but” appears on several occasions in the Qur’an:

  1. “and we sent him (Jonah) to a hundred thousand people or (but even) more.”(Al Saffat (37), Ayah 147)
  2. “Then your hearts became hardened after that, so they were like rock or (but even) harder.”(Al-Baqarah (2), Ayah 74)

3.”So when you did your ceremonies (rites-rituals) then reminisce God the way that you reminisce your fathers, or (but even) higher than that.”(Al-Baqarah (2), Ayah 200)

Chapter two: the opinion of Sunnite about the martyrdom of the Prophet (PBUH)

Great leaders of Sunnite believe that the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH) was martyred. Including:

1.Albeyhaqhi quoted from Alhakim from Alasam from Ahmed bin Abdul-Jabbar from abiMa’an from Ala’amash as Abdullah ibn Namreh from Abi Al’ahvas from Abdullah ibnMas’ud that said:

“If I swear nine times that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was killed, is better for me that once swear that he was not killed, and this is because God made him a prophet and a martyr.”(Alsirah Alnabaviyah, Ibn Kathir Aldameshghi, vol. 4, p. 449; Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol. 1 , p. 408; Almo’jam Alkabir, Tabarani, vol 10, p 109; Mosnaf, Sanaani, vol. 5, p. 268)

And the reasons for the martyrdom of the Prophet:

Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and Usamah entered the grave of the Prophet (PBUH) then a man from the Ansar who was called ibn-e-Khuli said:

“You know that I used to enter into the graves of all the martyrs, and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) is the most virtuous martyr, so he entered into the grave with them.”(AnsabAlashraf, Beladhari, vol. 1, p. 576)

Also HakemNeishaburi said: ” Shaabi said: By Allah, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) died poisoned.” (AlmostadrakAlaAlsahihayn, Hakem Neishaburivol. 3, p. 60, Hadith-99/4395, AlmaghaziVaAlsaraya section)

Ibn Saad said: in a hadith says: “And he (the Prophet) died poisoned when he was sixty-three years old. This is the word of Ibn Abdeh.” (Al-MajdifiAlansab, Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Alawi, p. 6.)

Reviewing the books of Sunni and Shi’a,we conclude that the Prophet was martyred by poison.

Chapter Three: Shia opinion about the martyr of Holy Prophet (PBUH)

All the great Shiite scholars believe that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) have been killed by poison,Although, some of them have not explicitly expressed thisdue to reservation and considerations of the existent suffocation in the reign of the wicked cruel governments. But none of them have quoted narrations indicating that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) died a natural death.

Sheikh Mufid says: “He was martyred by poison inSafar,28th in year 10 AH at the age of 63 years old in Medina.” (Almaghna’eh, Sheikh Mufid, p. 456)

Sheikh Tusi also has narrated the same in Tahzibol Ahkam. (TahzibolAhkam, Sheikh Tusi, vol. 6, p. 1)

And Majlesi says: “the martyrdom of the prophet happened in year 11 AH.” (Behar al-Anwar, Allameh Majlesi, vol 22, p 514)

Allameh Helli also confirms the martyrdom of the Prophet by poison. (Montahal Matlab, Allameh Helli, vol. 2, p. 887)

Mohammad Ali Ardebili also says: “the Prophet was martyred in Medina by poison.” (Jame Alrovat, Mohammad Ali Ardebili, vol. 2, p. 463)

In addition to consensus of the Shia scholars on the fact that the Prophet was martyred, there are also quotations (Hadiths) in this regard:

The first category: Quotations affirming the martyrdom of all Ahlul Bayt

  1. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “there is no prophet or executor unless he is martyred.”(Basa’er Aldarajat, Mohammed bin Hassan Saffar, p. 148; Behar al-Anwar, Allameh Majlesi, Vol. 17, p. 405 and vol. 40, p. 139)
  2. In another narration he said: “there is none of us unless is poisoned or killed.”(Wasael Alshieh, Sheikh Horr Ameli, vol. 14, p. 2 and p. 18; Behar al-Anwar, Allameh Majlesi, vol. 45, p. 1; Man la Yahzarohol-Faghih, Sheikh Sadugh , vol. 4, p. 17)
  3. Imam Hasan Mojtaba(AS): “I swear to God, none of us is but the killed and martyr.” The same narration is also quoted from Imam Sadegh and Imam Reza (AS).

From these quotation, it is understood that all the Ahlul Bayt were martyred because the negation and “unless” in the samesentence express the generality and including of all, unless due to a certain reason one of them excludes that such evidence is not existent.

The second category: quotations, especially about the martyrdom of the Prophet

Although the number of quotations in this categoryis not as large as the first one, they are correct and flawless regarding their documents.

1.SalimibnGheysHelali quoted from Abdullah ibn Ja’far that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had a speech and said: “O people! When I become a martyr, Ali is prior to you from yourselves, and when Ali was martyred, my grandson Hassan is prior to you from yourselves and when my son Hassan was martyred, my son, Hussein is prior to faithful people from themselves and…. then Ali ibn abi Talib (AS) stood while he was crying, he said: O Messenger of Allah,my parents beransomed for you! Do you get killed?! He said: Yes, I get martyred by poison, and you get killed by sword and your beard will be colored by your head’s blood and my son will be killed by poison! And my son Hussein will be killed by sword, he will be killed by a tyrant, the son of a tyrant! An adulterate, the son of an adulterate!A hypocrite, the son of a hypocrite!” (Asrar Al-e-Muhammad, Salim ibn Gheys Helali, p. 362; Behar al-Anwar, Allameh Majlesi, vol 33, p 266)

  1. Imam Sadegh (AS) has quoted from fathers (AS) that said: Imam Hassan (AS) said to his family: “I will be killed by poison, as the Prophet (PBUH) was killed by poison.”

 However, investigating the Qur’an, Hadiths and history lead us to the conclusion that: the holy prophet of Islam, Mohammad Mustafa (PBUH), did not die a natural death but was killed by a poison.

Islam,Peaceful Religion

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